This word can not be translated clearly: just as a chiaroscuro shades of weight, as well as in the word 'sfumato' many values, as if shimmering in each other. As for the "relationship between figure and ground ", it is best to look in the records of Leonardo, that he thought about it:" The most important thing in painting is that of the body, it has shown, seem to relief, and backgrounds, their associates, with their deletions seem extending into the wall, which brought to life through a picture of the three perspectives, namely: a decrease in the figures of bodies, a decrease in their values (a decrease in sharpness of the outlines) and a decrease in their colors. Of these three perspectives derived from the first eye, and two others made the air trapped between the eye and the objects visible in that eye. " And the "sfumato", and the relationship between figure and ground is present in almost all the paintings of Leonardo, and in the paintings of other artists. This, apparently, not enough to explain this unusual, "then smiling, then frowning" face of Mona Lisa. Soviet historian and a major scholar of Leonardo da Vinci M. Jack Buckingham wanted to know more. Gukovskij wrote about Mona Lisa, that she stares at the viewer, not just a spectator to it, and that the viewer feels awkward anxiously for this view and at the same time can not take my eyes off the wonderful portrait. So, in the face of the Mona Lisa is not only an extraordinary expression, but this expression is changing all the time! AA Gastev compares smile lingers around the lips Mona Lisa, a one-day tie. Perhaps it was a butterfly, with its rapidly flapping wings, lightning-fast changes of direction of flight will help us in otgadke? Efros wrote: "poluchelovecheskogo, poluzmeinoe being." But the snake is associated with the winding and changing all the time the movement! Consequently, in the face of the Mona Lisa – the movement! But any movement occurs in time, and static tableau – it captured a moment, but maybe these are the sheets of his treatise on painting, which irretrievably lost? Let's try to find existing records of at least a hint of these ideas and research, "Do not you see that the eye embraces the beauty of the world? He is the head of astrology, it creates a cosmography, he advises all human arts and corrects them, motivates people in different parts of the world, he is the emperor of Mathematical Sciences, its science – authentic: he measured the height and size of stars, he found the items and their location.
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The development of the torpedo boats began around 18-19 century, with the advent of contact, and later self-propelled torpedoes. Let us look into the past and will draw conclusions about the origin of the torpedo boats. Different materials, different sources, but most agree that they have appeared owing to sea mines. Why sea mines? Quite simply, if there is a weapon – you need support. Development began in the 18-19 age but has not reached the required level. That's why experts say the successful use of the torpedo boats with only the 20th century, to be more precise, since 1917.
When examining a man who sees everything, he noted that during this time. WWI War. That is, it was the British boat company, "Thorneycroft." This model is also called the "40-foot boat." However, they did not bring enough Vysokovo result in atttake as their followers, "the 55-foot boat." They were first applied June 17, 1919, this time against the Baltic Fleet of the USSR. Then the development of several torpedo boats sank, not because of the fact that there was no development opportunities, and because of the lack of reasons. However, when I started to mature opportunity.
World War II. Many writers such as David Zaslav offer more in-depth analysis. Dramatically increased the number of light military equipment in general, especially in the USSR, including torpedo boats. Each country of the enemy or the allies had their torpedo boats. Each had its advantages – higher development, lower, and depending on the economic and political situation of the country. So in England – it was MTV – speed 37 knot, 533-mm single-tube torpedo launchers, 2-3 machine gun caliber 7,62-12,7 mm, up to 4 depth charges. In Germany – S-Boot., Displacement of 115 tons, length 34.95 m, speed 40 knots, armament two 533-mm torpedo tubes and two 20 mm anti-aircraft gun. The Soviet boat was in first place in = the basic criteria. G-5 – had a displacement of 17 tons, length of 20 m, speed over 50 knots, was armed with two 533-mm torpedoes (torpedo in the trenches) and two 7.62-mm or 12.7 mm machine guns. And, of course, the main technical development of the country today – the United States. Boat type PT 103 – 50 tons displacement, length of 24 m, speed 45 knots, four 533-mm single-tube torpedo launchers, a 12.7-mm machine guns and 40mm anti-aircraft machine guns. But the war ended, and development was halted a few. Why? Because the missiles came, but his application was more effectively. Many countries have refused torpedo boats completely and forever in favor of the missile. Only a few continued to use the boat – the USSR, Germany, Norway, Sweden, China, Israel, but times have changed, so it is now no longer had to attack the enemy has changed and the application – motor torpedo boats were used as patrol, control of light forces, and submarines. Just changed characteristics. The post-war boat was move more slowly – 42 knots, tonnage 268 tons, a length of 38.6 m, four 533-mm single-tube torpedo tubes (torpedoes '53-56 '), 2 twin automatic gun mount AK-230 (30mm). But at the same time, there were boats with missile-torpedo armament. K end of the 20th century almost eradicated torpedo boats themselves – around the world there are only 162 rocket-torpedo, "clean" – 47. And the loss continues …